|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2019
Total stock-based compensation related to all of our share-based payments that we recognized for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018 were as follows (in thousands):
The fair value of each option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. We have segregated option awards into the following three homogenous groups for the purposes of determining fair values of options: officers and directors, all other employees, and consultants. We account for forfeitures as they occur.
We determined weighted-average valuation assumptions separately for each of these groups as follows:
The following table summarizes the weighted-average assumptions relating to options granted pursuant to our equity incentive plans for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018:
The exercise price of stock options granted under our stock plans is equal to the fair market value of the underlying shares on the date of grant. Options become exercisable at varying dates and generally expire 10 years from the date of grant.
We granted options to purchase 6,780,575 shares of common stock during the nine months ended September 30, 2019 with a grant-date weighted-average fair value of $1.26 per share. As of September 30, 2019, we had 100,000 shares of outstanding performance-based stock options wherein the achievement of the corresponding corporate-based milestones was not considered as probable. Accordingly, none of the stock-based compensation expense of $192,000 has been recognized as expense as of September 30, 2019.
As of September 30, 2019, there were approximately $10.7 million of unrecognized stock-based compensation cost related to time-based stock options and performance-based stock options, wherein achievement of the corresponding corporate-based milestones was considered as probable.
At September 30, 2019, there were 16,829,605 shares of common stock available for future grant under our equity incentive plans and 34,897 options to purchase shares were exercised during the nine months ended September 30, 2019.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
Our Purchase Plan permits eligible employees to purchase common stock at a discount through payroll deductions during defined offering periods. The price at which the stock is purchased is equal to the lesser of 85% of the fair market value of our common stock on the first day of the offering or 85% of the fair market value of our common stock on the purchase date. The initial offering period commenced on the effective date of our initial public offering.
The fair value of awards granted under our Purchase Plan is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which uses weighted-average assumptions. Our Purchase Plan provides for a twenty-four-month offering period comprised of four six-month purchase periods with a look-back option. A look-back option is a provision in our Purchase Plan under which eligible employees can purchase shares of our common stock at a price per share equal to the lesser of 85% of the fair market value on the first day of the offering period or 85% of the fair market value on the purchase date. Our Purchase Plan also includes a feature that provides for a new offering period to begin when the fair market value of our common stock on any purchase date during an offering period falls below the fair market value of our common stock on the first day of such offering period. This feature is called a “reset.” Participants are automatically enrolled in the new offering period. We had a “reset” on January 2, 2019 because the fair market value of our stock on December 31, 2018 was lower than the fair market value of our stock on July 1, 2018, the first day of the offering period. We applied modification accounting in accordance with the relevant accounting guidance. The total incremental fair value associated with this Purchase Plan “reset” was approximately $879,000 and is being recognized as expense from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2020.
As of September 30, 2019, there were 928,942 shares reserved for future issuance under the Purchase Plan and there was $771,000 of unrecognized stock-based compensation cost related to our Purchase Plan. The following table summarizes the weighted-average assumptions related to our Purchase Plan for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018. Expected volatilities for our Purchase Plan are based on the historical volatility of our stock. Expected term represents the weighted-average of the purchase periods within the offering period. The risk-free interest rate for periods within the expected term is based on U.S. Treasury constant maturity rates.
The entire disclosure for compensation-related costs for equity-based compensation, which may include disclosure of policies, compensation plan details, allocation of equity compensation, incentive distributions, equity-based arrangements to obtain goods and services, deferred compensation arrangements, employee stock ownership plan details and employee stock purchase plan details.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef